Eric Cline | 1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed

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1177 BC: The Year Civilization Collapsed
February 25, 2015
Dr. Eric H. Cline
Professor of Classics and Anthropology
Chair of the Department of Classical and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations
Director of the Capitol Archaeological Institute at The George Washington University, in Washington D.C.
For more than three hundred years during the Late Bronze Age, from about 1500 BC to 1200 BC, the Mediterranean region played host to a complex international world in which Egyptians, Mycenaeans, Minoans, Hittites, Assyrians, Babylonians, Cypriots, and Canaanites all interacted, creating a cosmopolitan and globalized world-system such as has only rarely been seen before the current day. It may have been this very internationalism that contributed to the apocalyptic disaster that ended the Bronze Age. When the end came, as it did after centuries of cultural and technological evolution, the civilized and international world of the Mediterranean regions came to a dramatic halt in a vast area stretching from Greece and Italy in the west to Egypt, Canaan, and Mesopotamia in the east. Large empires and small kingdoms, that had taken centuries to evolve, collapsed rapidly. With their end came the world’s first recorded Dark Ages. It was not until centuries later that a new cultural renaissance emerged in Greece and the other affected areas, setting the stage for the evolution of Western society as we know it today. Blame for the end of the Late Bronze Age is usually laid squarely at the feet of the so-called Sea Peoples, known to us from the records of the Egyptian pharaohs Merneptah and Ramses III. However, as was the case with the fall of the Roman Empire, the end of the Bronze Age empires in this region was not the result of a single invasion, but of multiple causes. The Sea Peoples may well have been responsible for some of the destruction that occurred at the end of the Late Bronze Age, but it is much more likely that a concatenation of events, both human and natural - including earthquake storms, droughts, rebellions, and systems collapse - coalesced to create a “perfect storm” that brought the age to an end.
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Lionel Sacks
Lionel Sacks 2 दिन पहले
Maybe Cornwall was more important for Tin? www.archaeology-world.com/scientists-find-that-tin-found-in-israel-from-3000-years-ago-comes-from-cornwall/
ИНО Institute of the New Society
ИНО Institute of the New Society महीने पहले
В России вышла книга об экономических кризисах (Колташов В. Г. Капитализм кризисов и революций: как сменяются формационные эпохи, рождаются длинные волны, умирают реставрации и наступает неомеркантилизм, М.: «РУСАЙНС», 2019), включающих кризис III в. и кризис XIV в. Автор известный специалист по кризисам. Рецензия на нее: www.if24.ru/pro-krizisy-koltashov/ Эта книга выйдет и на английском языке, возможно уже в 2020 г. Если поставить в ряд 1177 г. до н.д. с кризисами III в. и XIV в., то получится целостная картина важнейших - определяющих экономический, политический и культурный ландшафт кризисов-взрывов. (в продаже и торрентах книга есть)
Stig Pedersen
Stig Pedersen महीने पहले
Thank you for this lecture and posting. It's indeed interesting and mesmerising; one of the more peculiar thing in this, is that the "invaders", being it Sea People, are not said by any in this huge area where come from. It would had been both easy and natural to say "the Cretans", "the Cypriots", the Myceans" etc. Strange.
Bruno Pimenta
Bruno Pimenta 3 महीने पहले
As humans progress technologically, generation know how is gained but also lost, like today we know who to operate a computer but we dont know who to grow a damm cabbage, my theory is that when tin stopped flowing from the far east afghanistan, going west to the mediterranean sea, for some unknown reason, these societies collapsed because they didnt knew who to function properly without bronze anymore, the same would happen today if oil stopped flowing, if central power can´t manage to fed and protect their populations its just the end of it. Right? just a guess.
Jay Monet
Jay Monet 4 महीने पहले
wish you would have spoken more in-depth about the book, stopped watching after 18 minutes because you comedy is horrendous and dont care about you side commentary. guess ill never know
ROBERT ANDERSON 4 महीने पहले
BBQDad463 5 महीने पहले
I must buy the book.
J. F.
J. F. 5 महीने पहले
I am absolutely floored by the fact that Dr. Eric Cline not only omits that fact that the Canaanites known as "Phoenicians" (and their cities) were left untouched by the Sea Peoples but he actually claims that they too were destroyed among others. Nothing can be further from the truth. Speechless. The collapse of the Eastern Mediterranean civilizations (Mycenaeans, Hittites, Egypt, Ugarit et al.) not only benefited the Canaanites known as "Phoenicians" in getting rid of competitors/ennemies (the Mycenaeans thwarted the Phoenicians from expanding West, the Hittites had taken over Ugarit in the North and were also at the Western border of Phoenicia, Egypt didn't offer the promised protection to the Phoenicians against the Hittites). The Phoenicians played a major role, if not THE role, in the collapse. Their cities remained intact. The Phoenician city of Award (captured by the Hittites) was returned to the Phoenicians after the Sea People had recaptured it. Most importantly and above all, the Phoenicians were able to expand their maritime empire west and thrive for at least another millenium. Their expansion West was also responsible in the formation of the Western world (Greeks and Romans) where the Phoenicians, either their own knowledge/inventions and/or in relaying the ones of the others in the East (namely the Egyptians and Mesopotamians).
taria64 5 महीने पहले
Eric Cline is one of my favorite historian after coming across him last year...such great lectures. Thanks
eathealthier4u 7 महीने पहले
Great job, only the "sea peoples" could be all the shifting populations going to "better shores" trying to survive.
Ursa Major
Ursa Major 7 महीने पहले
What about the global climate issues of the time ? Tree ring studies of Northern Europe point to devestating effects triggered by either a volcano eruption or a comet strike.
eathealthier4u 7 महीने पहले
What year was the tree ring studies for?
中村隆宏 7 महीने पहले
I am watching the your lesson s. Im deep a prissier This lessons I am CP I am disabled and I cannot staying in the abraded thank you so much for your support and your team program thanks a lot. And I d like to stading more long time and version I am a majoring China’s Buddiesisms I have master of art ‘s degree thanks so much
中村隆宏 7 महीने पहले
I am watching the your lesson s. Im deep a prissier This lessons I am CP I am disabled and I cannot staying in the abraded thank you so much for your support and your team program thanks a lot.
*TRIESTANO* 9 महीने पहले
47:26 "it's kind like the anti-???" what?
HankTheHun 13 दिन पहले
TheWinterShadow 11 महीने पहले
Excellent lecture.
_rmaze_ Quiambao
_rmaze_ Quiambao 11 महीने पहले
Good video to fall asleep to.. 😪😪😪
Hercules साल पहले
he looked better when he was thicker
Agusta Sister
Agusta Sister साल पहले
Somebody needs to talk to bill nye the PERVERT guy
Gloin 120
Gloin 120 साल पहले
Greetings from POLAND! Just watch it before exams - gonna help me a lot! Cheers!
Jason Woodford
Jason Woodford साल पहले
i like , good works , to be more visual , how about art , faces in each cultres style ,,also knief , whos brandishing what , ag tools ? rake hoe an plow ,again times 8 cultures , 1177 bc is remote , oh rocks an stones geology , a cut at where who was getting tin from where ,who made do with arsnec ? ,c ya
RL Barnes
RL Barnes साल पहले
Has anyone found a good lecture on the urban collapse from the middle Bronze Age?
Abe De
Abe De साल पहले
1177-1171BC; The years that the global climate collapsed. Northern Europe was iced over for the 5 year Ragnarok the Five Years without Summer, (Irish bog oak studies). The sea peoples are from the Bronze Age Civilization of Northern Europe. Phaeakian (Viking) Longboats that cruised the North Atlantic and near Arctic brought gold, silver, copper and furs to Europe (Hyperborea) from as far away as Copper County, MI. When the Raganarok struck, they, their families, flocks, history, culture and traditions sailed South, along side Peoples such as the Pallas-Aethenian (Peles-et, Phillas-Tine), Achaean, Danoi, Troyan and Phoenikian. They fought the local inhabitants for lands and harbors in the warmer South, from Lebanon to Cadiz they brought their Culture and Warfare. When the reached the Eastern Mediterranean they met the Mycenaean elite and their serfs (farmers/Aegrika/Greek) and many settled on either side of the Dardanelles and around the Western shore of the Kymerian (Cimmerian) Sea. The Kymer had the farthest to travel and they scattered far from their arctic homes in the far North of Europe to far separate lands. Most of the Mediterranean Bronze Age civilizations were already reeling from the Winter Storms, crop destruction, famine and pestilence that always follows a gigantic cold event. They stood little chance against the Sea Peoples and the others that swarmed down from the North through the passes in the Caucus Mountains. Peoples such as the Hebrews and their Céile Dé-an cousins the Gaels and Iberians had pushed East into Scythia from the Empire of the River Egypt and then after surviving many years in desperate circumstances where other died. They took lands away from the locals and made them their own.
Greg Jay
Greg Jay साल पहले
Velikovsky worlds in collision, mainstream hates him for taking all of their sources and by using interdisciplinary techniques which is the only way to go for it must all line up, claims it was the planets Venus and Mars, every prediction he made came true.
Jeffrey Riley
Jeffrey Riley साल पहले
That trailer was cool!!
Nate1525 साल पहले
Starts at 4:15
old fan
old fan साल पहले
This was great. Why Archeology & Anthropology are important! But, there's one thing Dr. . Cline didn't mention: during the bronze age there were no nuclear weapons. Just a thought. :)
Enid Snarb
Enid Snarb साल पहले
I think Rohl is right about the Chronology, Which makes Ramesses III sometime after 850 B.C.
Steve Gasparutti
Steve Gasparutti साल पहले
I love Neil Sedaka. I did not know he was an Historical expert. He seems to know it all. Bronze age collapsed while he sang "Breaking Up is Hard to Do". Thank God the Beatles came along and started the Iron Age.
Philip O'Carroll
Philip O'Carroll साल पहले
5:22 He misrepresents Tainter to say he is only talking about collapse of single societies. Tainter specifically refers to highly interconnected societies and states that individual societies cannot collapse because one of their neighbours will take over. The exception is when they all collapse together, due to the same dynamic of increasing marginal cost of managing complexity. The Bronze Age Collapse is an example of this. Here is an excerpt from The Collapse of Complex Societies, by Tainter, p215 " Collapse is possible only where there is no competitor strong enough to fill the political vacuum of disintegration. Where such a competitor does exist there can be no collapse, for the competitor will expand territorially to administer the population left leaderless. Collapse is not the same thing as change of regime. Where peer polities interact collapse will affect all equally, if and when it occurs, provided that no outside competitor is powerful enough to absorb all. Here, then, is the reason why the Mayan and Mycenaean centers collapsed simultaneously. No mysterious invaders captured each of these polities in an improbable series of fairy-tale victories. As the Mayan and Mycenaean petty states became respectively locked into competitive spirals, each had to make ever greater investments in military strength and organizational complexity. As the marginal return on these investments declined, no polity had the option to simply withdraw from the spiral, for this would have led to absorption by a neighbor. Collapse for such clusters of peer polities must be essentially simultaneous, as together they reach the point of economic exhaustion. "
Nick Deakin
Nick Deakin साल पहले
Moving Tin over the silk road from Afghanistan to the Med is challenging, it would dramatically increase cost with duty levied by each city (toll) and exposure the merchant to potential robbery for such a precious commodity. Moving bulks by sea is much more likely (you can move over 30 tons by ship, a ton by cart on dirt track - much slower), it is more likely that Tin was coming from Iberia (that may have also controlled supply from Brittany and Britain into the med) using established ports. We tend to think in modern terms, but maritime trade was prolific before this dark age, it was largely controlled by the Minoans in the Med before this, with their demise their was no-one to bring in Tin to power the Bronze age economy in this region, the infighting between city states which followed may have been a need to acquire sources of metal by conquest. The flow stopped, it took considerable time for the Phoenicans to reestablish these sources after the time of the Seas People.
Christian Haft
Christian Haft साल पहले
I'm pretty fascinated that Dr. Cline's timeline matches Graham Hancock's almost to a T
tiami साल पहले
1400 ad not 1177bc
Honoring History
Honoring History साल पहले
Thank you for making these lectures available to the public! Very informative.
Lisa Langlois
Lisa Langlois 2 साल पहले
Chakib Tsouli
Chakib Tsouli 2 साल पहले
21:00 Drake? The archeologist from Uncharted? :p
vasim ahmad
vasim ahmad 2 साल पहले
it is a good job for those people who can't attend the class
Holly leonhard
Holly leonhard 2 साल पहले
Ok, humor me a moment and let's call this ancient systems collapse a failure of "materials systems." We are currently in the "information age." Do you guys think it's safe to say we are heading towards a collapse of "information systems" based on a lack of trust in institutions formerly relied upon to verify information, amongst other things?
Gods Elect Atlantis rael
Gods Elect Atlantis rael 2 साल पहले
Schliemann was a fraud who found nothing ! The ancient city of Troy, Saxon Israel was the basis of Plato's Atlantis. The IS on the end, being a hint. Jesus Christ himself, was a Trojan Saxon, who was indeed a priest of ON ! A high priest of ON, as Solomon , Rameses and Poseidon, the father of Atlas, this Trojan Saxon Israel was a worldwide empire with huge fleets of ships and technology yet unequalled. 1207-1177 is obviously the forty years wandering in the desert with Moses and Aaron. I am not speculating, but have evidence. I mean a big hint is the" Shekelesh".
zapfanzapfan 2 साल पहले
No sign of a volcanic eruption somewhere in the world around that time? Like the year without summer in 1816 after an eruption in Indonesia, or the eruption in the 530s (about) in middle America that caused depopulation in northern Europe and maybe is the origin of the Fimbul winter story. Or the Laki eruption on Iceland that may have caused famine and the French revolution.
CmacKw 2 साल पहले
For the last two decades I've been working on a theory that explains repeated systems collapse/reorganization, in terms of long-term yet rapid cyclical climate change, from warm-wet to cold-dry regimes, associated with Bond Events, which in turn are linked to increased seismicity/volcanism and nested solar cycles.
Joey Burt
Joey Burt 2 साल पहले
he seems like such a passionate scholar. he always makes that "i'd probably only survive 24 hours back then" joke every lecture hah
Molly MacCorkle
Molly MacCorkle 2 साल पहले
Here is a theory, read the history book, the Bible. In it Pharaoh was expecting the jews, the people doing the real work, to make bricks without any straw, and build this great civilization, the pyramids, without giving them the means to take care of themselves. In the end God led them out of Egypt. These were the people providing the food shelter and clothing for the whole society, and they decided that if they weren't going to get to share in the fruits of their labors, they were going to walk off the job, and do their own thing, and Pharaoh could starve to death. History has a way of repeating itself, we build temples to ball, while the people doing the work pay for them are taxed out of their homes, while the "players" make multimillions, to play, getting the capital that should be going into homes. It winds up being a pyramid scheme, and pyramid schemes collapse when you run out of people to buy in, Isaiah 30, in fact Isaiah 26 to 30, or the whole book. But then again, Mr. Cline is a player, produces something that some people may want, as opposed to needs. Technology is such that the man hours to produce the needs is less, we no longer plow with oxen, or reap with sickles, allowing him not to struggle for food. Now we create jobs that produce nothing, junk mail and paperwork, and those people make more than people taking care of the elderly, harvesting the crops, working the stores. The people blowing up houses, and "defense contractors" make more than carpenters, who build the houses, and keep them in repair, so we have homelessness...... And the government "assistance" is relied on for even working people to eat, although the crops were grown. Etc., etc., etc..
jacobkosh 2 साल पहले
"my boy Amun-Hotep III"
Gadaranië 2 साल पहले
Great video!
Mathematech 2 साल पहले
Stop the nonsense that Caphtor is Crete. No historian or Bible commentator from antiquity equated Caphtor with Crete. The Bible mentions the Caphtorim as an Egyptian people and tradition always associated it with the region of Kaphutia (Pelusium).
cosiestalozmagdak 2 साल पहले
Yesterday I become interested in bronze age civilization collapse. Today I am watching a lecture on this by foreigner professor from the university at the another side of the world. I live in the future
johnspartan98 2 साल पहले
One good hit by a CME will take out our technology.
Michael Reinmubd
Michael Reinmubd 2 साल पहले
I am so happy that in this day and age people still are fascinated by the ancient past.
SharpLight 2 साल पहले
I love this period and have been reading about it for a long time, the book gives a great panorama of the late bronze age. This lecture is very good and I certainly would recommend it. I would like to add two details: * The military during the late bronze age was (mostly) based on elite professional charioteers using chariots that were high-tech in their age as much as the stealth jet planes of today. When the trade routes are cut or rebellion rises in many places the replacement of lost chariots (and the highly trained men who use them) is very hard. If the military force of a state collapse the country soon follows. * What really collapsed was the *urban culture* of the late bronze age, while the rural population might have suffered great decline they still were there. The so-called Dark Age is just the peasants taking over after all the towns are burnt to the ground. As the professor says at the end after the dark age the past is glorified and remembered because they are the same people! Linear-B is Greek! All the bishops of the Francs were Roman patricians, etc, etc... With a globalized trade-dependent world without a central political authority (Roman Empire was globalization wrapped with military power) the real question is not what caused their collapse but how did they manage to set this system up in the first place. You don't wonder why planes fall to the ground, but how they fly. I think people spend way too much time discussing collapse without a sufficient study of the rise of states/empires/trade systems, etc. One cannot understand _why_ the Roman Empire declined and fell without studying why they ascended and got established in the first place!
Greg T
Greg T 2 साल पहले
Nice video, thanks. There appears to have been a plague affecting the Hittites at or around this time as well. Origin: Egypt. Could this have been another of the factors affecting the collapse?
Chara Choppel
Chara Choppel 2 साल पहले
What chronology is used to get at the year 1177 bc??
Margaret Bu Shey
Margaret Bu Shey 2 साल पहले
In regards to the trade route's, the mineral signature of the copper traced it to N. America......Michigan in particular. The people of those cultures disappeared also. Thank you Mr. Cline for the lecture and thank you "The Oriental Institute" for posting it.
Margaret Bu Shey
Margaret Bu Shey 2 साल पहले
Some of the copper.
Winter Star
Winter Star 2 साल पहले
Gifts brought to great kings meant far more than just a gift. Gifts to great kings were always given in order to promote a cause the petitioner/gift-giver wanted that king to help them with. Hammurabi, being the king he was, probably 'returned' the shoes, because he did Not favor the representative, the cause, and/or country it came from......did Hammurabi go to war with the country, in the months after refusing the gift? Had some other country ask for his help fighting off a 3rd country? Help the petitioner's country with food? Other help petitioned for? That might help the shoe gift refusal make sense.
Dennis Schohan
Dennis Schohan 2 साल पहले
Absolutely hilarious. Definitely recommend this
Alan Bregović
Alan Bregović 2 साल पहले
princeton university press or pup )))))))))))))) idk why its even funny
Bard Madsen
Bard Madsen 3 साल पहले
I find it truly amazing that academia can not open their minds to space falls alike what was said 'out with the old and in with the new'. How does the Mediterranean trade, earthquakes, drought, and war affect the Maya? When I read the Iliad it surely sounds like a cosmic story and a lot of text back then sound metaphorical as in the Sea People. All of a sudden these people come out of nowhere and bring down all civilizations across the globe and vanish. Ancient text speak of the water, sea, lake, ocean, river, and stream as the sky and space in the most part, so why are educated people fixated on Earthy waters and thinking sea monsters (people) only exists there? The kings always take on the attributes of the Gods of the sky so why would one think all the military inscriptions are real life occurrences? Admittedly in the interpretation of one of those texts 'the seven ships of the enemy are doing us harm… if others show up tell me... ' How is the far away 'father' going to know what is happening where the report is made? That doesn't make sense. But the number seven does, as in the Pleiades wherein the Taurid Stream delivers bolides which could produce the destruction that is being admittedly guessed at as a combination of many factors and somehow affects the Maya culture on the other side of the Earth which points to a causation from above ! Read my book From The Deep Ocean Above and tell me it doesn't add up much better than the points made here. Also, many places of destruction are abandon to archeology, could it be that they were taboo to go to after such a blast from above? Furthermore the Egyptians and the Maya speak of destruction from above by feathered serpents originating from the Pleiades.
timrhicks1234 3 साल पहले
Excellent excellent presentation. Very interesting info and the modern comparisions of Bronze and Oil are too similar to ignore.
timrhicks1234 2 साल पहले
@The Oriental Institute Thank you for posting it. I am hoping to use history and lessons from the past to advance critical thinking in education.
The Oriental Institute
The Oriental Institute 3 साल पहले
+timrhicks1234 Glad you enjoyed it!
Jerry Kitich
Jerry Kitich 3 साल पहले
As for Greece, they started civilization, so now they think they have a right to end it too.
Chrizzie 78
Chrizzie 78 3 साल पहले
The Exodus? Really? Seriously? Wiki: The historicity of the exodus continues to attract popular attention, but the archeological evidence does not support the story told in the Book of Exodus[4] and archaeologists have therefore abandoned the investigation of Moses and the Exodus as "a fruitless pursuit."[5] books.google.nl/books?id=6-VxwC5rQtwC&redir_esc=y books.google.nl/books?id=0QHHITXsyskC&pg=PA5&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false
wood rackets
wood rackets 3 साल पहले
Read the book & really enjoyed it. I'm happy to see this video where Cline spoke in my hometown.
The Oriental Institute
The Oriental Institute 3 साल पहले
+wood rackets Glad you enjoyed it!
Archaeology ~ The Uluburun Shipwreck
Book of the Semester: Fall 2016